The TRCM is a neutral body, created through a partnership between the
Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs (AMC) and Canada with a mandate to strengthen,
rebuild and enhance the Treaty relationship and mutual respect as envisaged by
the Treaty Parties.
The TRCM will enhance and maintain positive intergovernmental relations and
cooperation, conduct independent research that advances discussion on Treaty
related issues, and facilitate public understanding of the importance and role of
Treaty making in building a stronger and healthier nation.
Manitoba Treaty Map
Resource Centre Links
Disclaimer: The Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba does not maintain or authorize
the material on external links. These links are only offered for additional information on
Treaties and related issues.
Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs
"Our goal is to present the diversity of Manitoba's First Nations in a more
thorough and evenly balanced light and provide you with a First Nations view
on the factors that make all of us different and unique, yet united as one, in our
journey toward self government.
It is our hope to provide the public with accurate and useful information that will
inspire further reading and help correct any/all misconceptions that may still exist
in our informed society. These sources will be derived from the most current and
accurate publications available, with reference to these sources made available
on our web site".
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (Federal Government)
"In general, INAC has primary, but not exclusive, responsibility for meeting the
federal government's constitutional, treaty, political and legal responsibilities
to First Nations, Inuit and Northerners. To fulfill this mandate, INAC must work
collaboratively with First Nations, Inuit and Northerners, as well as with other
federal departments and agencies, provinces and territories. Increasingly, INAC's
role has become one of facilitating change and bringing together the partners
and interests needed to implement Gathering Strength - Canada's Aboriginal
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Deveopment Canada
"This series of maps illustrates the historical evolution of Canada through treaty-
making between 1867 and 1999, focusing on the Numbered Treaties. The
Numbered Treaties were negotiated between the Dominion of Canada and the
First People who inhabited newly-acquired western territories. The maps are
available in pdf".
"The Historic Treaty Information site has been created by the Treaty Policy
Directorate of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (TPD, INAC) to make more
readily accessible a number of resources relating to historic treaties. The site
contains historical research reports, images, maps, bibliographies and other
resources pertaining to the more than 70 historic treaties negotiated between
1701 and 1923".
Indian and Northern Affairs Annual Reports, 1864-1990 (with Library and
"The Indian Affairs Annual Reports collection was first issued on CD-ROM
in 1997. Through a cooperative effort between the former National Library of
Canada and the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, the full
text of these annual reports is now available on the Web. We hope that users will
find the reports a rich resource for historical research". www.collectionscanada.gc.ca
Indian and Northern Affairs: Aboriginal Place Names, July 2001
An Evolving Terminology Relating to Aboriginal Peoples in Canada
Federal Government homepage
Vision and Mission include: "An improved quality of life and opportunities for
Manitoba's Aboriginal and northern people", and "better services, opportunities
and results for Manitoba's Aboriginal and northern people".
Provincial Government of Manitoba homepage
Southern Chiefs Organization (SCO)
Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak Inc. (MKO)
The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is an organization of Indigenous
Peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific
working for the Sovereignty and Self Determination of Indigenous Peoples and
the recognition and protection of Indigenous Rights, Treaties, Traditional Cultures
and Sacred Lands.
"The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is the national organization representing
First Nations citizens in Canada. The AFN represents all citizens regardless of
age, gender or place of residence".
"...established in 1999, was given a mandate by the Chiefs of Manitoba to
provide second and third level education services to fifty-five First Nations
schools in Manitoba".
Wahbung our Tomorrows (1971), educational excerpt:
"Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) works to ensure the responsible
development of Canada's natural resources, including energy, forests, minerals
and metals. We also use our expertise in earth sciences to build and maintain an
up-to-date knowledge base of our landmass and resources".
Historical Indian Treaties goes into some detail on the pre-Confederation and
Post-Confederation treaties. The map is vague; however there is some simple/
overview info on the history of treaties.
(Has Aboriginal Place Names)
"The Canadian Model Forest Network continues to bring together organizations
with diverse views on how forests should be managed. With core funding and
leadership from Natural Resources Canada's Canadian Forest Service, this
diversity of opinion and spirit of collaboration has advanced the knowledge and
practice of sustainable forest management".
"Library and Archives Canada collects and preserves Canada's documentary
heritage, and makes it accessible to all Canadians. This heritage includes
publications, archival records, sound and audio-visual materials, photographs,
artworks, and electronic documents such as websites".
Overview of the history of colonization of Canada by Europeans organized by the
century, also, has a look at map making throughout the centuries. It recognizes
some of the Aboriginal people's important roles in the history of exploration.
"Our Mission: The mission of Theses Canada is to acquire and preserve a
comprehensive collection of Canadian theses at Library and Archives Canada
(LAC), to provide access to this valuable research within Canada and throughout
the world. Our mission to preserve this portion of Canada's bibliographic heritage
is achieved through partnership with the many Canadian universities who
participate in our program".
Examples: "Virginia Petch, PhD dissertation-Relocation and loss of homeland:
the story of the Sayisi Dene of northern Manitoba
"Paul Hackett, PhD dissertation- A very remarkable sickness: the diffusion of
directly transmitted, acute infectious diseases in the Petit Nord, 1670-1846>
"Archives Canada is an official archival portal maintained by the Canadian
Council of Archives (CCA), and is a joint initiative of CCA, the Provincial -
Territorial Archival Networks, and Library and Archives Canada".
"On October 20, 2001, the Canadian Council of Archives launched the Canadia
Archival Information Network, an electronic initiative designed to provide
online access to holdings in over 800 archival institutions across the country.
Known initially as CAIN, the network has now become Archives Canada
"Environment Canada's mandate is to preserve and enhance the quality of the
natural environment; conserve Canada's renewable resources; conserve and
protect Canada's water resources; forecast weather and environmental change;
enforce rules relating to boundary waters; and coordinate environmental policies
and programs for the federal government".
Mandate: "On behalf of the people of Canada, we protect and present nationally
significant examples of Canada's natural and cultural heritage and foster public
understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological
and commemorative integrity for present and future generations".
An Approach to Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes "A fascinating Parks Canada
research report about incorporating traditional Aboriginal values and spiritual
views of the natural world into the process of developing national historic site
designations" (The Canadian Encyclopedia-on-line)
Historic and Cultural Heritage-has info on First Nation occupation of this area
"COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada) is a
committee of experts that assesses and designates which wild species are in
some danger of disappearing from Canada".
"In 2000, COSEWIC added a new subcommittee to assist it in the acquisition
and incorporation of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge into the COSEWIC status
assessment process. The Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) Subcommittee
is in its formative stages, and will ultimately ensure ATK is included in the status
assessment process." (From brief history about COSEWIC) Defines Aboriginal
Traditional Knowledge (ATK)
"Our role is to provide Canadians with high-quality environmental assessments
that contribute to informed decision making, in support of sustainable
"Considering Aboriginal traditional knowledge in environmental assessments
conducted under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act -- Interim Principles.
There is growing recognition--both in Canada and abroad--that Aboriginal
peoples have a unique knowledge about the local environment, how it functions,
and its characteristic ecological relationships. This Aboriginal traditional
knowledge (ATK) is increasingly being recognized as an important part of project
planning, resource management, and environmental assessment (EA)".
"The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a Crown corporation
created by the Parliament of Canada in 1970 to help developing countries
use science and technology to find practical, long-term solutions to the social,
economic, and environmental problems they face. Our support is directed toward
creating a local research community whose work will build healthier, more
equitable and more prosperous societies".
E- Books: Traditional Ecological Knowledge Concepts and Cases
In the Way of Development: Indigenous Peoples, Life Projects and Globalization
"The Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, (CAP), is the national voice of off-reserve
Aboriginal people throughout Canada. We are a grassroots-driven, national voice
for our communities, advocating for the rights and interests of off-reserve and
non-status Indians and Metis people, living in urban, rural and remote areas of
"Manitobans have inherited a rich legacy from the past. The reminders range
from our natural landscapes, heritage sites, and landmark buildings to the historic
objects and documents in our museums and archives, as well as the knowledge,
ideas, and traditions of our ancestors".
Mandate: "Set the overall direction for the Department for programs, policies,
and legislation that impact or may impact Treaty and Aboriginal rights. Be
accountable for the development and implementation of a departmental
framework to address Aboriginal issues as they relates to the Department; and
Educate, facilitate dialogue, and bridge opposing views and philosophies".
"Our information collection covers a wide range of topics, including energy,
environmental quality, environmental management and protection, pollution
prevention, fisheries, forestry, parks, wildlife, hydrology, sustainable
development, climatology, and meteorology". They have an on-line database of
documents and journals.
Information on petroforms of Manitoba, link to Bannock Point, Whiteshell
Manitoba Land Initiative (Government of Manitoba): On-line digital map(s)
Manitoba Education and Training (Native Education Directorate and
Instructional Resource Unit)
Aboriginal Peoples: Resources Pertaining to Aboriginal People, Inuit and Metis
"The Manitoba Archival Information Network (MAIN) is a database of descriptions
of archival material held in Manitoba archives. It is a work in progress, with new
descriptions being added regularly". "For further information about the material
described in this database, contact the relevant archives (contact information is
linked from each description)".
"Under the authority of The Archives and Recordkeeping Act, the Archives of
Manitoba has the exclusive mandate to preserve the archival records of the
government and its agencies, the courts and the legislature. The legislation
provides for the acquisition of archival records of organizations and individuals
in the Manitoba private sector and local public bodies. We are proud to be the
repository of the world-renowned Hudson's Bay Company Archives".
Information on Canadian Aboriginal Culture and Dialects (Manitoba Region)
"Founded in June 1879 by an Act of the Manitoba Legislature, the Manitoba
Historical Society (MHS) is the oldest organization in western Canada devoted
to the promotion of public interest in, and preservation of, the region's historical
"The Manitoba Archaeological Society (MAS) was established in 1961 by a group
of individuals concerned with the preservation of Manitoba's archaeological
1998 Manitoba Archaeological Society, main site:
Bibliography of key resources related to the website:
"The contents of this website are based on a presentation by James A. M. Ritchie
to the ICOMOS-Canada Committee. Principal interpretive assistance contributed
by Elder William Dumas, Cree. Astronomical interpretation based on work of Dr.
John Eddy. Research conducted at the Boissevain & Morton Regional Library
and Community Archives on behalf of the Moncur Gallery. For information please
contact the Moncur Gallery directly".
"The Moncur Gallery has published a background report on the physical
evidence of Aboriginal history in the Turtle Mountain region entitled Turtle
Mountain Tales: The Council Stones".
"The Centre for Rupert's Land Studies at The University of Winnipeg facilitates
scholarly research and publishing concerning the human history of the Hudson's
Bay Company territory, known from 1670 to 1870 as Rupert's Land. The Centre
for Rupert's Land Studies also functions as a clearinghouse to assist researchers
with similar interests to be in touch with each other, to communicate about their
research projects and findings, and to assist researchers from out of town by
putting them in touch with qualified local assistants or by providing a congenial
meeting spot when visiting Winnipeg".
"The Manitoba Museum is the province's largest heritage centre renowned for its
combined human and natural heritage themes. The institution shares knowledge
about Manitoba, the world and the universe through its collections, exhibitions,
publications, on-site and outreach programs, Planetarium shows and Science
Human History overview, contacts and brief bibliography
Manitoba Museum on line HBC collection- overview
Centre for Indigenous Environmental Research (CIER)
A national, First Nation-directed environmental non-profit organization with
charitable status. CIER was established in 1994 by a group of First Nation Chiefs
from across Canada. Through programs, they take action on climate change,
building sustainable communities, protecting lands and waters, and conserving
biodiversity (adapted from website).
They have an e-library and publications/links to other sources of information
concerning Indigenous Knowledge and the environment
Websites by Reegan Breu (Information Services @ CIER)
First People Libraries
"The Centre operates a unique Resource Library and Information Centre relating
to the First Nation Peoples of Manitoba as well as other Indigenous Peoples
of North America. Our resource centre has a substantial collection of books,
publications, films, educational kits, audio-visual tapes, music, art and handicrafts
inherent to the Aboriginal Peoples of North America. The Resource Library
and Information Centre are instrumental in promoting library services to Bands
that expressed an interest in establishing a library. We also provide specialized
assistance to those who already have a library".
Frontier School Division
Fontier School Division Social Studies/Native Studies Department
"The Aboriginal Canada Portal (ACP) is your single window to First Nations, Inuit
and Metis on-line resources, contacts, information, and government programs
and services in Canada. The Aboriginal Canada Portal is a partnership between
Government departments and the Aboriginal community that allows better
quality service and information delivery and to the degree possible, ensures
that the site continues to evolve with a user-friendly and useful manner".
"Early Canadiana Online (ECO) is a digital library providing access to 2,762,671
pages of Canada's printed heritage. It features works published from the time
of the first European settlers up to the early 20th Century. ECO is produced by
Canadiana.org, a nonprofit organization for preserving and providing access to
early Canadian publications, first on microfiche and now online".
"This site is about the history of Canada through the words of the men and
women who shaped the nation. Built around the Government Documents
collection of the Early Canadiana Online collection, it integrates narrative text
with links to primary source texts".
Aboriginals: Treaty and Relations
Aboriginal web portal, last updated in 1998, thus many links do not work, but has
many useful topics to search on the internet
Vision: "The First Nations Environmental Network is a circle of First Nations
people committed to protecting, defending, and restoring the balance of all
life by honouring traditional Indigenous values and the path of our ancestors.
We encourage the work of protecting, defending and healing Mother Earth.
We desire and need to link grassroots Indigenous people nationally and
internationally to support each other on environmental struggles and concerns.
We are obligated to leave footprints for our children to follow by striving to live
our life with traditional values".
"The Aboriginal Multi-Media Society is an Aboriginal communications society
dedicated to serving the needs of Aboriginal people throughout Canada.
Incorporated in 1983 under the Alberta Societies Act…the Society has
steadfastly maintained its commitment to the quality of its products and its
"This project is intended to provide a mechanism to share knowledge, interests,
and effective practices connecting the Aboriginal community from around this
expanse country and the world. Our vision is to create an on-line atmosphere
connecting the Aboriginal community with each other and sharing the aboriginal
experience with those who desire this experience".
University of Toronto Libraries section on J.B Tyrrell's expeditions in 1893
and 1894 for the Geological Survey of Canada in the Barren lands region
"This site documents two exploratory surveys of the Barren Lands region west of
Hudson Bay, in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan and the area now known
as Nunavut. Drawing on materials from the J.B. Tyrrell, James Tyrrell and related
collections at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto, it
includes over 5,000 images from original field notebooks, correspondence,
photographs, maps and published reports".
"Our Roots is a library, archive, museum and school all in one. Check the
collection to find Canadian local histories in French and English. Check
Educational Resources for learning packages for students and teachers".
People and Land in Northern Manitoba: 1990 Conference at the University of
University of Alberta:
Faculty of Native Studies,links to organizations, institutions, and web links related to native studies
Native Studies publications from the University of Alberta
"The National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA) was established to
promote sustainable forestry as a necessary condition for Aboriginal economic
development, the repair of environmental degradation, and the restoration of
cultural and community spiritual health for Aboriginal people across the country.
NAFA is the host and administrator of the Forest Home website".
This website has a plethora of important materials, such as information
concerning co-management and Indigenous Knowledge, for example,
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) and Skownan
Between January 2000 and June 2001, IISD partnered with Skownan First
Nation, formerly called Waterhen First Nation, to explore how Aboriginal people
value the lands around them and how this information can be incorporated into
Manitoba's land-use and resource management activities".
Also, see Stock, Karen (PhD dissertation) The Skownan First Nation model for
sustainable development and Aboriginal stewardship (2006)
"The Forks, so named because of its position where the Assiniboine River flows
into the Red, yields a rich history of early Aboriginal settlement, the fur trade, the
advent of the railway, waves of immigration and the Industrial Age".
Also, see Huck, Barbara (ed.). Crossroads of the Continent: A History of the
Forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. Winnipeg, MB: Heartland Associates
An Examination of Anishinaabe Philosophy Concerning Knowledge,
Identity and Ethics.
E-book-copyright 1998-2005 by D'Arcy Rheault
"Ecotrust Canada builds the capacity of communities, institutions and businesses
to participate in the conservation economy; raises and brokers capital to
accelerate the transition to a conservation economy; and connects conservation
entrepreneurs to each other, and to the marketplace. We champion the
"In 1998, our commitment to strengthen collaborative relationships manifested
itself in the establishment of the Aboriginal Mapping Network (AMN) between
Ecotrust Canada and the Gitxsan, Ahousaht, Kwakiutl and Haisla First Nations.
From discussions with these groups, it was decided that Ecotrust Canada would
be the managing body of the AMN".
"The Aboriginal Mapping Network (AMN) is a cooperative website that supports
aboriginal and indigenous peoples facing similar issues such as land claims,
treaty negotiations and resource development. Common tools, such as
traditional use studies, GIS mapping and other information systems are used in a
collaborative manner, benefiting users of the AMN".
"Ecology and Society is an electronic, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary journal
devoted to the rapid dissemination of current research". This journal has useful
articles with bibliographies concerning First Nations issues, traditional ecological
knowledge and natural resource management. Davidson-Hunt, I. and F. Berkes.
Learning as you journey
Anishinaabe perception of social-ecological
environments and adaptive learning. Conservation Ecology 8(1): 5. [Online]
Directory of Online Canadian History Publications, Journals, Databases, & Exhibits
"This multimedia tutorial focuses on the histories of Canada's First Nations
peoples from ancient times to the nineteenth century. Finally, this module looks
at the reasons the First Nations and the Government of Canada negotiated and
signed treaties, the terms of these treaties, and how all parties reacted to them".
"Four Directions Teachings celebrates Indigenous oral traditions by honoring
the process of listening with intent as each elder or traditional teacher shares a
teaching from their perspective on the richness and value of cultural traditions
from their nation".
This interactive website has Cree and Ojibwa teachings.
This website also connects to information about First Nation languages, culture
and selected links on Native American Indian Tribes
This website has various links on First Nation mapping and also has information
on First Nations treaties and population.
This website has information on treaties in Canada and other related material.
There are many links to other websites with various information concerning
treaties, also there is a maps menu and main menu on the bottom of the page
that lead to other website concerning First Nations issues.
"First People is a child friendly site about American and Canadian Indians. 1400+
legends, 400+ agreements and treaties, 10,000+ pictures, free clipart, Pueblo
pottery, American Indian jewelry, books and more".
Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage:
First Nations Seeker: Directory of North American Indian Portal Websites
"This research program, lead by Professor Bell (University of Alberta) and
Professor Paterson (U.B.C. Law) [examined the] Canadian legislation affecting
ownership, protection and control of First Nation cultural heritage and develop
strategies for reform". The project is complete, there are 2 final reports under
research papers link
"A unique presentation of primary and secondary resources found in the
collections of Canada's National History Society, HBCA - Archives of Manitoba,
The Manitoba Museum, Parks Canada and several First Nations communities".
"Welcome to the Western Canada Pictorial Index at the University of Winnipeg.
This index contains more than 60,000 images of Canada's west from the Riel
Rebellion to the late 20th century. A great variety of themes are covered in
the Index, but a few areas receive outstanding coverage. Agriculture and farm
production is important and well-represented, with nearly 10,000 items. Canada's
First Nations are well-represented, as are the men and women who came to
Manitoba and the Northwest from the four corners of the globe".
and Considerations (Library of Parliament-Parliamentary Information and
Prepared by: Tonina Simeone - Political and Social Affairs Division, 15
"The Centre has a two-pronged mandate. First, it is designed to support First
Nations as they seek to implement their inherent rights of self-government and
secondly, it assists First Nations in the further development of their day-to-day
"The Manitoba Association of Friendship Centres (MAC) was established in
1971 as a non-profit body to represent the concerns of the growing number of
Friendship Centres in Manitoba. As a Provincial Territorial Association (PTA)
MAC now represents 10 Centres at Provincial and National forums".
Friendship Centres in Manitoba and National
"The Manitobia.ca project is a first major initiative of the Manitoba Library
Consortium and its partners to gather and render accessible a wealth of
historically significant documents and publications free of charge to Canadians,
young and old. The Consortium, an incorporated non-profit organization of
Manitoba libraries, provides leadership by planning and managing projects
and resources so Manitobans can enjoy equitable access to the library and
information resources of the province".
(search under Native Peoples)"The Canadian Encyclopedia comprises the complete text and multimedia
of the indispensable reference work originally published in 1985. Since the
encyclopedia appeared online in 2001, it has been continuously updated
and expanded. James H. Marsh has been editor in chief of The Canadian
Encyclopedia since 1980".
Trade Experience in Voyageurs National Park 1730-1870
Report on the history of the environment and fur trade in the Rainy River region
(Voyageurs National Park). Has some excellent material on transportation and
routes in the fur trade and includes some history of what is now Manitoba.
(link to many other websites in different
subjects such as Education, Treaties, History and Culture, General
First Perspective: National Aboriginal News
"The Manitoba Treaty Land Entitlement Framework Agreement was signed
by the Treaty Land Entitlement Committee of Manitoba Inc. (representing 20
First Nations), Canada and Manitoba on May 29, 1997 at the Opaskwayak
Cree Nation. This agreement is intended to provide land to the 20 First Nations,
fulfilling a long-standing commitment arising from the numbered Treaties signed
between Canada and the First Nations between 1871 and 1910."
Implementation Commission (Chapter 5: Aboriginal and Treaty Rights)
Manitoba Wildlands: Aboriginal Rights and Title
"The Office of the Treaty Commissioner (OTC), an independent body, will
serve as the primary mechanism to coordinate and facilitate a bilateral process
between Government of Canada and the Federation of Saskatchewan Nations
to achieve a common understanding on Treaties No. 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 in
Keeseekoowenin Ojibwa First Nation: The History of Treaty 2
Canadian Oral History Association
Good Minds: First Nations, Inuit and Metis Educational Resources
Build a tipi website
Government of Saskatchewan:Treaty education (K-12) website by the Government of Saskatchewan
Subject areas Time Allotments
Turtle Island Native Network